Hurricane

Les Hurricanes sont des cyclones collecteurs optimisés, qui tiennent compte de la façon dont l'agglomération des particules affecte l'efficacité de la collecte de particules.

Pourquoi les cyclones sont-ils généralement inefficaces ? L'approche traditionnelle.
Depuis la délivrance du premier brevet en 1886, les cyclones ont généralement été conçus et améliorés par le biais de moyens empiriques. Construire une méthode fiable de prévision de l'efficacité est très difficile, en raison de la complexité de la modélisation, puisque ces pièces d'équipement gèrent des flux à phases multiples et très turbulents, et parce qu'un très grand nombre de prototypes doit être construit, afin de confirmer l'effet des ratios de dimensions variables sur le rendement du cyclone. Le fait est que l'efficacité de cyclones généraux est insuffisante pour les besoins des clients, particulièrement pour des petites tailles de particule (<10µm).

PT Basuki

ReCyclone® MH for fly ash PM emission control of a coal BFB boiler.
 
Gas flow: 14 000m3/h at 230°C | Type of Particles: Coal fly ashes | Emissions: <100mg/Nm3
Client: PT Basuki | Location: Jawa Barat, Indonesia | Year: 2011

Amorim Cork Composits

Hurricane MK cyclone system for fly ash PM emission control of 3 grate type biomass boilers, placed after existing multicyclone/cyclone pre-separators.

Gas flow: 54 000m3/h at 175°C | Type of Particles: Cork dust fly ashes| Emissions: <100mg/Nm3
Client: Amorim Cork Composits | Location: Mozelos, Portugal | Year: 2013

RAR, S.A.

Hurricane HR cyclone system for fly ash PM emission control in a fuel oil boiler.
 
Gas flow: 4 000m3/h at 160°C | Type of Particles: HFO fly ashes | Emissions: <10mg/Nm3
Client: RAR, S.A. | Location: Porto, Portugal | Year: 2005

HC Energía

Gas flow: 2 109m3/h at 30°C | Type of Particles: Sider Gas (GLD) PM| Emissions: <10mg/Nm3
Client: HC Energía | Location: Astúrias, Spain | Year: 2011

Jaremar

Hurricane HR Cyclone system for fly ash PM emission control of a 35ton/h grate type biomass boiler, placed after multicyclone/cyclone pre-separator.
 
Gas flow: 114 935m3/h at 204°C | Type of Particles: Palm shell and fibers fly ashes | Emissions: <150mg/Nm3
Client: Jaremar – Agrotor | Location: Villanueva, Honduras | Year: 2012

Jaremar

Hurricane HR cyclone system for fly ash PM emission control of a 25ton/h grate type biomass boiler, placed after multicyclone/cyclone pre-separator.
 
Gas flow: 85 127m3/h at 256°C | Type of Particles: Palm shell and fibers fly ashes | Emissions: <150mg/Nm3
Client: Jaremar – Caicesa | Location: Tela, Honduras | Year: 2012

Corrugados Getafe

Hurricane HR system designed for product recovery of fine dust obtained in a steel industry process. System was installed to recover uncontaminated white slag powder before reaching the bag filter and reducing heavy maintenance costs of the filter.

Gas Flow: 158.500m3/h at 165˚C | Efficiency: >97 %
Client: Corrugados Getafe | Location: Madrid, Spain | Year: 2010

Anguil

Hurricane HR Cyclone system to reduce PM from Syngas in a gasification process.
 
Gas flow: 425m3/h at 160°C | Type of Particles: Biomass fly ash and calcium carbonate | Emissions: <50mg/Nm3
Client: Anguil | Location: Milwaukee, USA | Year: 2012

Microlime

Hurricane HR Cyclone system to recover fine particles from a calcination kiln reducing concentration to the
final dust collector (bag filter).

Gas flow: 22 408m3/h at 131°C | Type of Particles: Quicklime and dolomitic Lime | Separation efficiency: 97%
Client: Microlime | Location: Seixal, Portugal | Year: 2012

Moengo Minerals

Hurricane HR system designed for product recovery of very fine metakaolin particles.

Gas Flow: 21.368 m3/h at 650˚C | Efficiency: 89.2-92.6%
Client: Moengo Minerals | Location: Marowijne, Suriname | Year: 2010

Efacec Energia

Gas flow: 16 400m3/h at 30°C | Type of Particles: Cardboard from cutting | Emissions: <10mg/Nm3
Client: Efacec Energia | Location: Leça do Bailio, Portugal | Year: 2010

Confidential

Single Hurricane® cyclone optimized for API recovery after a mixer with 3,400m3/h flow rate @ 75ºC.

The cyclone is ø 800 mm, manufactured in AISI 316L under the most strict pharmaceutical quality standards.
Expected efficiency: 98.6-98.8 %

Nestlé - Nesquik

Hurricane HR system for recovery of dried chocolate powder milk from pneumatic conveying of Nesquik.

Gas Flow: 700m3/h at 28˚C | Efficiency: >99%
Client: Nestlé – Prolacto | Location: Barcelona, Spain | Year: 2010

Arla Foods

Hurricane HR system aiming to increase the recovery of milk proteins’ powder after a spray dryer. It was installed to replace an existing high efficiency cyclone from the spray dryer manufacturer in order to increase powder recovery.

Gas Flow: 92.000m3/h at 65˚C | Expected Efficiency: 98.9-99.3% | Measured Efficiency: 99.1%
Client: Arla Foods | Location: Holstebro, Denmark| Year: 2012

Fermel

Hurricane HR system and sedimentation chamber for mining machine for the recovery of leftover material in mining operations.

Gas Flow: 62m3/h at 100ºC | Expected and measured efficiency: > 90%
Client: Fermel | Location: Cape Town, South Africa | Year: 2010

Dexera

Two Hurricane EX cyclone system to reduce particulate matter from combustion of a mixture of green and dry sawdust and wood shavings in boiler #4 and boiler #5.
 
Gas flow: 90 000m3/h at 200°C | Type of Particles: Biomass | Emissions: <100mg/Nm3 at 7% O2
Client: Windsor / OneFortyOne | Location: Mount Gambier, Australia | Year: 2018

Deltech

Hurricane AT cyclone system to reduce emissions from the exhaust air of a wood fiber shavings silo.
Gas flow: 4 138m3/h at 12.8°C | Type of Particles: Wood Fiber Shavings | Emissions: <40mg/Nm3

ICAVI

Hurricane RE cyclone system, optimized to reduce the particle emission from an 25ton/h ICAVI boiler burning wood chips.

Gas flow: 68 901m3/h at 150°C | Type of Particles: Wood chips fly ashes | Emissions: <100mg/Nm3
Client: Icavi | Location: Cachoeira do Sul, Brasil | Year: 2019

Dan Power

Hurricane HR cyclone system to reduce particulate matter from a biomass boiler.
 
Gas flow: 295 575m3/h at 170°C | Type of Particles: Biomass fly ash | Emissions: <130mg/Nm3
Client: Dan Power / FS Bioenergia| Location: Sorriso, Brasil | Year: 2019

Valmet

Hurricane SD cyclone system to pre-separate particulate matter and abrasive dust emissions from a 109MWth biomass BFB boiler, upstream a bag filter.
 
Gas flow: 422 121m3/h at 156°C | Type of Particles: Silica and biomass fly ash | Emissions: <7500mg/Nm3
Client: VALMET / CELBI | Location: Figueira da Foz, Portugal| Year: 2018

Associated Energy Services

Two Hurricane HR cyclone systems to reduce particulate matter emissions from two 20ton/h coal boiler after existing pre-separators multicyclones.
 
Gas flow: 43 200m3/h at 220°C | Type of Particles: Coal fly ashes | Emissions: <120mg/Nm3 at 10% O2
Client: Associated Energy Services | Location: Pietermaritzburg, South Africa | Year: 2018

BASF

Two Hurricane HR cyclone systems designed to separate liquid condensate droplets from gas flows coming from scrubber.
 
Gas flow: 1 747m3/h at 25°C | Efficiency: 98.9 to 99.9%
Gas flow: 3 845m3/h at 25°C | Efficiency: 98.9 to 99.9%
Client: BASF | Location: Saint Aubin lès Elbeuf, France | Year: 2018

Arauco

Hurricane HR cyclone system to reduce particulate matter from a 170t/h biomass boiler in Puerto Piray.
 
Gas flow: 524 023m3/h at 173°C | Type of Particles: Biomass fly ash | Emissions: <100mg/Nm3 at 6% O2
Client: Arauco | Location: Argentina, Puerto Piray | Year: 2019

Sefako

Hurricane RE cyclone system to reduce particulate matter from a sefako boiler equipped with an eco-palnik wood pellet burner.
 
Gas flow: 6 755m3/h at 170°C | Type of Particles: Pellets | Emissions: <100mg/Nm3 at 6% O2
Client: Sefako | Location: Przasnysz, Poland | Year: 2018

Sefako

Hurricane HR cyclone system to reduce particulate matter emissions from a 4,7MW thermofluid biomass boiler.
 
Gas flow: 27 170m3/h at 350°C | Type of Particles: Cork dust | Emissions: <100mg/Nm3 at 11% O2
Client: Flucal / Amorim e Irmãos | Location: Santa Maria De Lamas, Portugal | Year: 2019

Futerra

Two Hurricane AT cyclone system for wood particle separation from air exhaust of two pellet coolers.
 
Gas flow: 30 000m3/h at 35°C | Type of Particles: White Pellets | Emissions: <100mg/Nm3
Gas flow: 36 000m3/h at 35°C | Type of Particles: Black Pellets | Emissions: <100mg/Nm3
Client: Futerra | Location: Valongo, Portugal | Year: 2018

Futerra

Hurricane HR cyclone system to reduce particulate matter from a 600hp biomass bark boiler after a multicyclone for end customer les Produits Forestiers D&G.
 
Gas flow: 35 170m3/h at 230°C | Type of Particles: Bark | Emissions: <150mg/Nm3 at 7% O2
Client: KMW / Produits Forestiers D&G | Location: Quebec, Canada | Year: 2018

Fontaine Lumber

Hurricane HR cyclone system reduce particulate matter from a 3MW biomass boiler – stage 1.
 
Gas flow: 6 411m3/h at 160°C | Type of Particles: Biomass Emissions: <150mg/Nm3 at 7%O2
Client: Fontaine Lumber | Location: Quebec, Canada| Year: 2018

Dan Power

Hurricane HR cyclone system reduce particulate matter from a biomass boiler.
 
Gas flow: 295 575m3/h at 170°C | Type of Particles: Biomass Emissions: <130mg/Nm3
Client: Dan Power / FS Bioenergia| Location: Lucas de Rio Verde, Brasil| Year: 2018

Latam BioEnergy

Hurricane HR cyclone system to remove particulate matter from a gasifier.
 
Gas flow: 2 291m3/h at 512°C | Type of Particles: Biomass Efficiency: 94.7 to 98.0%
Client: Latam BioEnergy | Location: Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic | Year: 2018

Berrywood

Hurricane HR cyclone system to remove particulate matter from a gasifier.
 
Gas flow: 2 291m3/h at 512°C | Type of Particles: Biomass Efficiency: 94.7 to 98.0%
Client: Latam BioEnergy | Location: Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic | Year: 2018

Cargill Meat

Hurricane RE cyclone system to reduce particulate matter emissions from a 420HPB biomass boiler, after an existing pre-separator multicyclone.
 
Gas flow: 10 380m3/h at 125°C | Type of Particles: Wood chips fly ash | Emissions: <100mg/Nm3 at 6% O2
Client: Cargill Meat | Location: Honduras | Year: 2017

Grupo Nutresa

Hurricane HR cyclone system to reduce particulate matter emissions from a rotary dryer
 
Gas flow: 26.175 m3/h at 64ºC| Type of Particles: Used coffee grounds | Emissions: <150 mg/Nm3 at 13% O2
Client: Industrias Aliadas S.A.S., Grupo Nutresa| Location: Ibagué, Colombia | Year: 2017

Vertdeshy

Hurricane HC cyclone system to recover product and reduce particulate emissions from a sawdust dryer.
 
Gas flow: 65 000m3/h at 60°C | Type of Particles: Wood saw dust | Emissions: <60mg/Nm3dry
Client: Vertdeshy | Location: Meximieux, France| Year: 2017

Jaksa

Hurricane RE cyclone system optimized to reduce pm emissions after a boiler burning coal.
 
Gas flow: 11,500m3/h at 140°C | Type of Particles: fly ash | Emissions: <75mg/Nm3dry at 6% O2
Client: JAKSA | Location: Warsaw, Poland | Year: 2017

Dan Power

Hurricane RX cyclone system to reduce emissions from a biomass boiler burning wood.
 
Gas flow: 188 861m3/h at 153°C | Type of Particles: fly ash | Emissions: <100mg/Nm3dry at 8% O2
Client: SSB Energia Renovável. | Location: Limeira, SP, Brazil | Year: 2017

Sugimat

Hurricane HR cyclone system to reduce particulate matter emissions from a wood shavings dryer.
 
Gas flow: 39 000m3/h at 120°C | Type of Particles: wood shavings | Emissions: <150mg/Nm3
Client: Sugimat | Location: Valencia, Spain | Year: 2017

Associated Energy Services

Hurricane HR cyclone system to reduce particulate matter emissions from 8 ton/h coal boiler.
 
Gas flow: 12 096m3/h at 220°C | Type of Particles: Coal fly ashes | Emissions: <110mg/Nm3 at 10% O2
Client: Associated Energy Services | Location: Durban, South Africa | Year: 2017

Avipronto

Hurricane RE cyclone system to reduce particulate matter from a 3ton/h steam biomass boiler burning wood chips.
 
Gas flow: 6 500m3/h at 108°C | Type of Particles: Wood fly ashes| Emissions: <75mg/Nm3
Client: Avipronto | Location: Azambuja, Portugal | Year: 2017

Bremer

Hurricane RE cyclone system, optimized to reduce the particle emission from an 15ton/h BREMER boiler burning wood chips.
 
Gas flow: 40 203m3/h at 170°C | Type of Particles: Wood chips fly ashes | Emissions: <65mg/Nm3
Client: Bremer | Location: Estação, Rio Grande Do Sul, Brasil | Year: 2017

Colcafé

Hurricane MK cyclone system optimized to reduce the amount of PM (toasted coffee) from a grinder tower.
 
Gas flow: 456m3/h at 32°C | Type of Particles: Toasted coffee | Emissions: <150mg/Nm3
Client: Colcafé, Grupo Nutresa | Location: Medellín, Colombia | Year: 2017

Resolute

Hurricane RE optimised to reduce particulate matter from a biomass boiler burning wood shavings after a multicyclone.
 
Gas flow: 10 300m3/h at 236°C | Type of Particles: Wood fly ash | Emissions: <100mg/Nm3@ 7%O2   
Client: Resolute | Location: Quebec, Canada | Year: 2017

Alucha

Hurricane HR cyclone system to separate particulate matter from pyrolysis gases at high temperature.
 
Gas flow: 392m3/h at 450°C | Type of Particles: Paper sludge PM | Separation efficiency: [97.5 – 99.0%]
Client: Alucha | Location: Arnhem, Netherlands | Year: 2016

Agrosan

Hurricane RE cyclone system optimised to reduce the quantity of particulate material leaving from a coal boiler.
 
Gas flow: 25 485m3/h at 104°C | Type of Particles: Coal fly ashes | Emissions: <50mg/Nm3
Client: Agrosan | Location: Sibaté, Cundinamarca, Colombia | Year: 2017

Ignis

Hurricane RE for particulate matter abatement downstream of an existing multicyclone, installed on 3.5 MWth LHV biomass boiler running on clean wood chips.
 
Gas flow: 8 250m3/h at 140°C | Type of Particles: Wood fly ashes | Emissions: <45mg/Nm3
Client: Ignis | Location: Wick, United Kingdom | Year: 2016

Air Liquide

Hurricane HR cyclone system, to separate iron oxide particulates from compressed air.
 
Gas flow: 104 342Nm3/h AT 6.9 Bar(A), 40°C. | Type of Particles: Iron Oxide | Efficiency: >89,8%
Client: Air Liquide | Location: Dabrowa Górnicza, Poland | Year: 2016

Le Creuset

Hurricane MK for to recover particles of borosilicate glass from air stream, on the grind milling process line 1.
 
Gas flow: 2 350m3/h at 90°C | Type of Particles: Borosilicate glass powder| Efficiency: 99.7-99.8 %
Client: Le Creuset | Location: Freynoy-Le-Grand, France | Year: 2016

Actavis

Several Hurricane HR cyclone systems to capture the pharmaceutical waste particles from the combined flow of a deduster and tablet press for product waste compliance.
 
Gas flow: 416m3/h & 850 m3/h at 25°C | Type of Particles: Waste particles | Efficiency: >98%
Client: Actavis | Location: New Jersey, USA | Year: 2016

Britton Timbers

Hurricane MK cyclone system optimized to reduce particulate matter from a biomass boiler.
 
Gas flow: 8 760m3/h at 328°C | Type of Particles: Biomass fly ashes | Emissions: <50mg/Nm3
Client: Britton Timbers | Location: Tasmania, Australia | Year: 2016

L. Solé S.A

Hurricane MK cyclone system optimized to reduce particulate matter from a biomass boiler burning wood.
 
Gas flow: 12 900m3/h at 209°C | Type of Particles: Biomass fly ashes | Emissions: <50mg/Nm3dry
Client: L. Solé S.A. | Location: Bavaro, Dominican Republic | Year: 2016

Arcelor Mittal

Hurricane HR Cyclone systems and dust evacuation system to reduce sinter dust from extraction air of cooling section of sinter strand.
 
Gas flow: 651 864m3/h at 350°C | Type of Particles: Sinter Dust | Emissions: <100mg/Nm3
Client: Arcelor Mittal | Location: Gent, Belgium | Year: 2015

KB Energy

Hurricane HR Cyclone system for reducing particulate matter from a syngas.
 
Gas flow: 3 611m3/h at 400°C | Type of Particles: Biomass PM from gasification| Emissions: <41mg/Nm3
Client: KB Energy | Location: Etoliko, Greece | Year: 2014

Vyncke

Hurricane HR optimized for pellet combustion to reduce particulate matter from a biomass (wood pellets) boiler.
 
Gas flow: 21 200m3/h at 177°C | Type of Particles: Biomass - Pellets| Emissions: <50mg/Nm3
Client: Vyncke | Location: Scotland, United Kingdom | Year: 2014

Storm Energy

Hurricane HR cyclone system to reduce particulate matter emissions from syngas.
 
Gas flow: 3 250m3/h at 375°C | Type of Particles: tar and particles escaping a wood gasifier
Expected efficiency: 97.2 - 98.4% | Expected Emissions: 24mg/Nm3dry
Client: Storm Energy | Location: Plovdiv, Bulgary | Year: 2013

Garbuio Dickinson

Hurricane HR Cyclone system to reduce tobacco fine particles in a tobacco drying line.
 
Gas flow: 4 720m3/h at 180°C | Type of Particles: Tobacco particle | Emissions: <100mg/Nm3
Client: Garbuio Dickinson | Location: Hannover, Germany | Year: 2012

Tecnosulfur

Hurricane HR Cyclone system for sinter PM emission control in a sintering process.
 
Gas flow: 84 500m3/h at 150°c | Type of Particles: Sinter fines | Emissions: <70mg/Nm3
Client: Tecnosulfur, S.A. | Location: Sete Lagoas, Brazil | Year: 2012

Duna Drava Cement

Hurricane HR cyclone system for PM reduction of clinker fine and petroleum coke fly ash in a cement plant. It
was installed downstream of the last existing cyclone of the pre-heater to reduce fines emissions.
 
Gas flow: 37 513m3/h at 327°C | Type of Particles: Fly ash from petroleum coke kiln | Expected efficiency: 87.15 - 92.92%
Client: Duna Drava Cement | Location: Beremend, Hungary | Year: 2013

Laser Automation

Two single Hurricane MK cyclones to reduce PM emissions from laser cutting machines.
 
Gas flow: 650m3/h at 20°C | Type of Particles: Paper particles from cutting | Emissions: <23mg/Nm3
Client: Laser Automation, Switzerland | Location: USA & Poland | Year: 2013

Juan José Albarracín, S.A.

Hurricane HR cyclone systems to recover paprika powder from 3 milling lines.

Gas Flow: 11.010m3/h at 47,5˚C | Expected Efficiency: 99.7%
Client: Albarracín | Location: Murcia, Spain| Year: 2014

EDP Gás

Hurricane HR cyclone system for cleaning particulate matter from the gas entrainment in the pipes working at a pressure of 16BAR.
 
Gas flow: 16 016 Nm3dry/h (16 Bar) at 11°C | Type of Particles: Iron oxide dust | Efficiency: > 94%
Client: EDP Gás | Location: Porto, Portugal | Year: 2015

Glowood

Hurricane HR Cyclone systems to reduce emissions of dryer cyclones in Glowood pellet plant.
 
Gas flow: 71 839m3/h at 87°C | Particles: Fines of mill sawdust | Emissions: <15mg/Nm3
Client: Glowood| Location: Cercal do Alentejo, Portugal| Year: 2014

Associated Energy Services

Hurricane HR cyclone system to reduce particulate matter emissions from 20ton/h coal boiler
 
Gas flow: 38 880m3/h at 220°C | Type of Particles: Coal fly ashes | Emissions: <110mg/Nm3 at 10% O2
Client: Associated Energy Services | Location: Pietermaritzburg, South Africa | Year: 2017

Combustion de fioul

Pour le contrôle des émissions de MP dans lesflux d'échappement à haute température, tels que ceux des chaudières à fioul, les dépoussiéreurs courants comme les filtres à manches ont des coûts d'entre...

Acier et ferro-alliages

Les processus de fabrication d'acier et de ferroalliagesimpliquent des flux élevés d'échappement à haute température, souvent à plus de 900°C. En règle générale, le gaz s'échappe du four (généralement...

Refroidisseur de scories de ciment et dépoussiérage du préchauffeur

Le contrôle des émissions fines de scories de cimentaprès l'échangeur de chaleur, placé en aval du refroidisseur de scories de ciment, est habituellement un problème pour les responsables d'usine de c...

Pyrolyse, incinération et gazéification

Afin de contrôler les émissions de MP dans des flux d'échappement à très haute température (> 600 ºC), comme la gazéification, la pyrolyseet l'incinération, des filtres à manches traditionnels après d...

Broyage et séchage de biomasse

Les pelletssont généralement fabriqués à partir de sciure et de copeaux de bois. La matière première humide est généralement broyée dans un broyeur à marteaux, puis séchée dans un séchoir rotatif chau...

Huile et gaz

Dans les processus de craquage catalytique fluide(FCC, pour Fluid Catalytic Cracking), largement utilisés dans les raffineries de pétrole, la séparation et la récupération de catalyseursen poudre est ...

Séparation à haute température et récupération d'énergie

Compte tenu des difficultés pour atteindre leurs résultats en augmentant leurs revenus, les entreprises se tournent de plus en plus vers la réduction des coûts. Réduire la consommation d'énergie est d...

Capture et dépoussièrage de l'air

De nombreuses industries font face à des problèmes de poussière libérée pendant le transport ou la transformation du produit. C'est le cas du textile, de la transformation du bois, de l'extrac...

Processus de calcination

Dans les procédés de calcination, des produits et intermédiaires solides sont régulièrement manipulés sous forme de poudre fine (ex : le kaolin ou métakaolin).  Ces poudres très fines doivent être sé...

Biomasse et combustion du charbon

En matière de contrôle des émissions de matières particulaires (MP) dans des flux d'échappement à haute température, tels que ceux de chaudières et d'appareils de chauffage à charbon ou biomasse, les ...

Ingrédients pharmaceutiques

La récupération efficace d'ingrédients pharmaceutiques actifs (IPA), de substances chimiques ou de poudres alimentaires après des applications de séchage, comme la pulvérisationet le séchage par l...

Produits chimiques

La récupération efficace d'ingrédients pharmaceutiques actifs (IPA), de substances chimiquesetde poudres alimentaires après des applications de séchage, comme la pulvérisation et le séchage par lit fl...

Ingrédients alimentaires

La récupération efficace d'ingrédients pharmaceutiques actifs (IPA), de substances chimiques et de poudres alimentairesaprès des applications de séchage, comme la pulvérisation et le séchage par l...

Traitement des minéraux

Dans les industries de traitement des minéraux, comme la calcination ou la production de catalyseurs, des produits et intermédiaires solides sont régulièrement manipulés sous forme de poudres fines. ...

Engrais

La récupération des engrais, généralement après des tunnels de séchage ou des séchoirs à tambour, est associée à une charge élevée de particules et de flux de gaz très humides. La récupération de c...

Processus de broyage et de séchage

La récupération efficace d'ingrédients pharmaceutiques actifs (IPA), de substances chimiques et de poudres alimentaires après des applications de séchage, telles que la pulvérisation et le séchage...