• Case Studies
Emission Control

Oil & Gas and High Pressure Applications

Across the oil and gas industry and related fields, the critical importance of high pressure and the need for effective solid separation from gas streams are emphasized in various processes, including removing contaminants like iron oxides and silica from natural gas pipelines and ensuring the purity of high-quality compressed air lines. A similar requirement for cleaning arises in the treatment of Sider Gas (GLD), where iron oxides and metallic particles need to be removed. Beyond these applications, such processes play a pivotal role in the production and enhancement of fuels, including biofuels, and in the recovery of catalysts during fluid catalytic cracking operations. Moreover, the demand for efficient solid separation and the management of high pressures extend to advanced energy production techniques, including flameless pressurized oxy-combustion, highlighting the universal need for these technologies in ensuring operational efficiency and environmental compliance.
 

Black Powder Removal

Black Powder is a pervasive solid contaminant in natural gas transmission and distribution systems worldwide, primarily composed of iron oxides, iron sulfides, and some silica.

This contamination originates from the internal erosion and corrosion of carbon steel pipelines. Whether adhering to the pipe wall or accumulated at the pipe bottom, black powder significantly impacts system efficiency by increasing roughness, reducing flow area, and elevating pressure drops. The consequences extend to product contamination, erosion wear in compressors, instrument clogging, and erosion and sealing issues in valves, affecting equipment from large industrial burners to residential appliances.

To date, finding an effective solution for black powder removal has been challenging. Traditional commercial cyclones, while available, only effectively capture larger particle sizes, and cartridge filters frequently clog, requiring multiple daily changes. Magnetic separation technologies, although effective, demand substantial investment. Maintenance practices, including pigging, are labor-intensive and result in considerable downtime.

The market demands a highly efficient final dedusting system capable of being placed upstream or as an alternative to cartridge filters. This system must effectively capture particles across all sizes, aiming to reduce both maintenance and operational expenses.

Advanced Cyclone Systems (ACS) offers a solution with high-pressure cyclones suitable for both compressed air and natural gas. These systems, including gas outlet plenums and discharge containers, are designed to withstand pressures up to 20 bar. Cyclones are available in various materials, from Stainless Steel AISI316 to Duplex 2205, and are manufactured in compliance with the 97/23/EC pressure equipment directive, addressing the broad spectrum of particle sizes while also aiming to cut down maintenance and operation costs.
 
ACS group of cyclones and accessories for Iron Oxides separation in natural gas networks at 16bar for EDP Gas in Portugal ACS Cyclone for Iron Oxides separation in compressed air network at 8bar for Air Liquide in Poland
 

Sider Gas (GLD) Cleaning

Sider Gas, commonly referred to as Steel Mill Gas or GLD, is a complex byproduct of the steel production process. Generated during critical phases such as coke-making, blast furnace operations, and steelmaking in basic oxygen or electric arc furnaces, Sider Gas encompasses a variety of particulates. These include tar and soot, trace metals from coke ovens, iron and calcium oxides from blast furnaces, and metallic particles from steel conversion processes. These particulates pose a significant risk of fouling or damaging the internal components of gas engines, thereby diminishing their efficiency and lifespan. Traditional cleaning methods typically employ cartridge filters; however, these require intensive maintenance.

The market demands an efficient dedusting system that can be integrated upstream of cartridge filters to effectively capture a wide range of particle sizes, thereby aiming to streamline maintenance and reduce operational costs.

Advanced Cyclone Systems (ACS) responds to this need with a suite of high-efficiency / high pressure cyclone batteries designed to significantly ease the load on cartridge filters, thus substantially reducing maintenance demands.

ACS cyclone battery and for Sider Gas cleaning separation in Spain
 

Fluid Catalytic Cracking

In the realm of oil refineries, Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) processes play a pivotal role, where the separation and recovery of powder catalysts emerge as a primary concern.

Following the regeneration process, the FCC flue gas exits the regenerator, overflowing from an array of internal cyclones. The catalyst dust, typically exceeding concentrations of 150 mg/Nm3, is then directed through an additional separation unit, the Third Stage Separator (TSS), which bifurcates the flow into a diluted stream and a concentrated stream. For plant managers, a primary goal is to harness the clean overflow for heat recovery or energy production through a Turbo Expander, while managing the release of the concentrated fraction into the atmosphere.

Facing stricter emission regulations, there is an imperative need to control catalyst emissions from the TSS's underflow or to contemplate a complete overhaul of the TSS system. This necessitates a durable, high-pressure particle collection system that can withstand extremely high temperatures.

Cyclones present a cost-efficient alternative to the more expensive sintered filters. Strategically placed after the TSS within the concentrated gas stream, this system aims at emission control before integrating the flow with the overflow for heat recovery (Option A), or it could be situated immediately after the regenerator, effectively replacing the TSS (Option B)

Advanced Cyclone Systems introduces its agglomerator hurricane cyclones (EX and MK lines), featuring an alumina-based lining that offers numerous benefits. Its design, characterized by low abrasiveness geometries and remarkable efficiency, eliminates the need for barrier-type filters. This innovative approach ensures an effective solution for catalyst recovery and emission control within FCC processes, aligning with both operational efficiency and environmental compliance objectives.
 
Opção A - Sistema de Ciclone para a Fração de Gás Sujo Concentrado Opção B - Ciclone para Limpar Todo o Volume de Gás Existente no Regenerador, Substituindo o Separador de Terceiro Estágio