ACS Numerically Optimized Cyclones

How can cyclones be improved?

Since the early 1900’s, cyclones have been mostly designed and improved by empirical means, due to the difficulty of building a good prediction method that handles with the modeling complexity related with multiphase and highly turbulent flows. Computerized Flow Dynamics (CFD) can be used for partial cyclone optimization but it is still incomplete for full cyclone optimization, due to the very large computational burden associated with highly vorticial, assimetrical and multiphase flows with polidispersity. Sub-optimization of cyclones, and notably low collection efficiency result from the fact that particle agglomeration in cyclones has been disregarded until present days.

How can cyclones be improved?
Near 350 projects implemented in the past 12 years, helped ACS develop a complete line of very different Hurricane cyclone families, with each family responding to a particular need from the client and considering how inter-particle agglomeration / clustering affects collection efficiency. From coarse particle pre-separation proportioned by compact and low pressure drop cyclones, such as the SD and DX, to fine particulate capture with high-end geometries such as the EX and MK, ACS provides solutions for a wide range of industrial cases, being able to reach emissions comparable to ESPs (down to less than 30mg/Nm3).
Particle Agglomeration and Numerical Optimization
ACS research team has been investigating this phenomenon since its foundation. Several related technical and scientific articles were published, among which the “Impact of particle agglomeration in cyclones” (Chemical Engineering Journal 162 (2010) 861–876)”. This knowledge has helped ACS build very accurate models of efficiency prediction, capable of explaining why sub-micrometer particles are often captured with much higher efficiency than expected. Indeed, particles tend to form bigger agglomerates (clusters) much easier to collect than the original particles. Agglomeration increases in the presence of wide particle size distributions, long residence times in the cyclone and high inlet particle concentrations. This knowledge has been incorporated in ACS numerical simulation tool, combining a sophisticated stochastic algorithm with a classical numerical model to predict cyclone performance: the PACyc (Particle Agglomeration in Cyclones) model.
Creating multiple cyclones for multiple needs
Thanks to the PACyc Model, and considering several economic and operation constraints (such as size and pressure loss), it is possible to simulate millions of virtual prototypes with numerical optimization within an affordable period. Considering this approach as the best path to obtain truly optimized cyclones, sound theories of cyclone collection and pressure loss were chosen for each process application. These numerical optimization problems have resulted in several families of cyclones, some of those patented. Indeed, different industrial cases have different needs for which the optimization functions to incorporate in the PACyc model may be as complex as minimizing cost or space, subject to a minimum efficiency result.
The following cyclone families, always subject to further customization, are the result of very different client demands ACS has come across until now.

How do cyclones compare?
The best way to understand the purpose of each type of cyclone and how they differentiate from each other is by designing arrangements by cyclone type for a given industrial example.

Depending on the requirements of the client, ACS may design solutions that go from process cyclones or compact pre-separators for sparks and silica reduction (protection of downstream equipment) to a final stage dust collector. The more efficient the solution is, the larger the number of cyclones needed to increase residence time and promote particle agglomeration with impact of space and cost. ACS will always search for the most cost-efficient solution.
Please compare the performance of several products below for emissions control in a 5MWth wood chips moving grate boiler. Each cyclone solution has the same pressure drop and is treating air and particles coming directly from the boiler.

cyclone system for fuel oil combustion - ACS

Fuel Oil Combustion

Fuel Oil Combustion Fuel Oil Combustion (Heavy Fuel Oil, Light Oil and others) releases particulate matter (PM) to the atmosphere, polluting the surroundings and harming human health. The PM releas...

Cyclone system during process of steel & ferroalloys production - ACS

Steel and Ferroalloys

Steel and Ferroalloys Steel and ferroalloy making involve many processes that generate dust, which include the sintering process (pre-treatment of iron ore), the blast furnace operation, coal and cok...

Cyclone system used for Pyrolysis, Incineration and Gasification - ACS

Pyrolisis & Gasification

Pyrolisis & Gasification Pyrolysis & gasification are both thermal decomposition processes. Pyrolysis occurs in the full absence or near absence of oxygen, leading to the production of solid, liqui...

Advanced Cyclone Systems in Biomass Milling & Drying - ACS

Biomass Drying

Biomass Milling & Drying The drying of biomass is common to many industries, including wood pellet making, panel boards and many others, from coffee to olive-oil or animal feed. Technologically, thes...

Advanced Cyclone Systems in fluid catalytic cracking - ACS

Oil & Gas and High Pressure Applications

Oil & Gas and High Pressure Applications Across the oil and gas industry and related fields, the critical importance of high pressure and the need for effective solid separation from gas streams are ...

Cyclone System In High Temperature Separation & Energy Recovery - ACS

High Temperature Separation Processes

High Temperature Separation Processes Separating particles from the air at high temperature serves multiple needs that go from thermal energy recovery in several industries to improving the economi...

Cyclone Systems used for air caption and dedusting - ACS

General Dedusting & Powder Recovery

Several industries face problems from dust released during processing or transportation, so general dedusting applications can be found in a wide range of industries, such as construction, manufacturi...

Advanced Cyclone Systems used in Calcination Processes - ACS

Calcination and Mineral Processing

Calcination and Mineral Processing Calcination is a process that involves heating a substance, typically a solid material, at high temperature with limited supply of air or oxygen. The purpose of c...

Using an advanced cyclone system for direct biomass combustion – ACS

Biomass and Coal Combustion

Biomass and Coal Combustion Burning biomass and or coal releases particulate matter (PM) to the atmosphere, polluting the surroundings and harming the human health. PM emissions is a common prob...

Pharmaceutical Ingredients

Particle separation is required for the production and processing (drying, mixing, grinding & micronization, tablet pressing) of a wide variety of synthetic and natural Active Pharmaceutical Ingredien...



Chemicals  Particle separation is required for the production and processing (drying, milling, and classification) of a wide variety of distinct products in the production of organic and inorganic ch...

Recovered pulverized food ingredients from particle separator – ACS

Food Ingredients

The need to separate powder based Food Ingredients occurs in many industries, from the dairy to chocolate making and from beverages to starches and yeasts. Processes needing separation include drying ...